nkl      When Desiderius Erasmus quoted “Prevention is better than cure”, seems as though he summarised the fundamental principle behind Traditional Chinese Medicine. TCM aims at treating the root cause of a disease laying stress on using natural medicines and therapeutics.

It is not only the use of Chinese herbal medicines, but it encompasses various other branches, including Acupuncture, Moxibustion, Tui na and practising Tai chi & Qi gong.


It is believed that the origin of TCM goes back more than 2000-5000 years ago. The first written documentation on traditional Chinese medicine is the Hung-Di Nei-Jing or Yellow Emperor’s Cannon of Internal Medicine. Bian stone needles with sharp ends were most commonly used for bloodletting and pus removal. Whereas, Lancet shaped Bian stones were used to create incisions. And lastly, the club or round shaped bian stones are used for massage and heat application.

During the Zhou dynasty, the yin-yang theory, the five elements, and the meridians of acupuncture were discovered. The stone needles became obsolete and metal needles were commenced.

Interestingly, it was the Han dynasty when TCM blossomed at a very fast pace. This was the era of Confucius and invention of anaesthesia by Mafei San.


Nowadays Acupuncture is not only practised in China but is renowned worldwide for being the least invasive and safe method for treating various diseases. Acupuncture needles are used to stimulate certain points for relieving a vast range of disorders from fever to febrile disease.

Got a Toothache?  Hegu (合谷穴) point:

Location:  On the dorsum of the hand, between the 1st and 2nd metacarpal bones, in the middle of the 2nd metacarpal bone on the radial side.

 Uses:  Not only for a toothache but this point is also useful for treating a variety of  ailments. Amenorrhea, Gastric pain, Common cold, Diseases of head and face, Pain in arm, finger spasm and various other maladies.

The good thing about TCM is that it can help the body to defend itself against diseases by boosting the immune system, therefore, it has lesser side effects. No matter whatever treatment you choose either Acupuncture or massage or Moxibustion it has been found effective for even those illnesses which sometimes western medicine fails to comprehend….



_Hira Chaudhry

Writing a Research report or proposal? Confused? Here’s your friend in need!


 Research is a compulsory part of every subject these days. Submitting a proposal prior to a research report, dissertation or thesis is standard. It is only after the proposal is approved, the work on that particular research project can be initiated.

                You want to know what is important about research, I ask what isn’t?                “According to data from The World Bank, United States alone spends 47.3%
whereas, China spends 52.5% of the total government expenditure on health development issues only.” Medical research will help us to save all that budget which could be spent on other necessities like education.                                                                                                                           Being new to this practice many students become confused or perplexed when filing a mandatory document for their supervisors. This is why a majority do not receive good remarks and are even advised to revise their proposals on the first attempt. The reason behind this can either be due to lack of proper guidance at educational institutions or student’s interest. But interest can be easily developed if the students understand the importance of research in their future career along with some creative modification in the method of presenting the subject of research.
As far as the contents of the research proposal are concerned, they should mainly cover areas such as background, research problem,
research objectives, research questions/hypotheses, a brief review of extant literature, significance or scope of proposed study, research design, study outline, budget and timescale.
For the ease of readers, each component of a research proposal is separately described as follows.

There should be a rationale for the proposed study. In other words, the selected area of research should be justified in the very first part
of a research proposal. It is pertinent to mention here that the rationale must be referenced and backed by literary works.

**Research problem
Under this heading, the main idea of research is discussed comprehensively with all the possible and relevant issues added to it.
This section is written in a very critical manner such as not to exaggerate the real problem but to define its significance to be resolved.

**Research objectives
This section must be dedicated to identifying the main objectives of the study through numbers or bullets.
A research study should have at least three to four objectives, set after reviewing the previously carried out researches on a similar subject.

**Research questions/hypotheses
Research subjects are sometimes picked from research questions and hypotheses.
These questions are opted for when the finding of answers is aimed at, whereas hypotheses are picked if testing of the assumptions is intended.
It is decided in accordance with the requirement of the projected study. Both can be presented with the help of bullets or numbers.

**Literature review
This is the most substantial part of a proposal. The section critically represents the findings of previously carried out researches.
Outline the background of your idea and build your discussion logically towards the research proposal.
A brief overview of secondary data should be given under this section.

**Significance of proposed study
Make your proposed study different and unique from the previously studies on a similar subject by stating facts and comparative analysis.
In this regard, differences based on approaches, subject areas and methods can be taken into consideration.
The expected contributions of the proposed study in the existing literature should also be expressed in the portion.

**Research methodology
This component is designed to identify the exact course or road map of a research study. In simple words,
you as a researcher defines how you would conduct the proposed research study under it.
Therefore, the segment proposes methods that strictly comply with the nature of a projected research study.
It should be noted that a proposed method such as survey, interview, observation, focus group, field notes, etc.,
should not only be described but also justified under the heading of this crucial part of a proposal.

There should be a detailed outline for a proposed study. The structure of the whole study should be explained while
identifying the main chapters of the study.
Moreover, all the main headings and their subheadings should be clearly mentioned.
In this way, the segment distinctly shows all the possible areas intended to be covered under the projected research study.

Research work also needs money to be carried out. The estimation of the required budget is requisite to understand whether
the expenses on the research project are affordable for the researcher or not.
Though students sometimes are financed by educational institutions or other supporting organisations, these also require a
full-fledged plan of expenditures for assessing the need of a student before providing him or her with financial support.
For this reason, students should scrutinize the feasibility of carrying out the research work within the available funds.

Another important factor is the management of time required. This section is designed to clearly discuss the consumption of time
expected during each and every step of the research. Additionally,a Gantt chart (a bar chart stating the starting and finishing dates of proposed actions)
can also be drawn for the sake of better representation of project management within an applicable time frame.

Hope this turns out to be helpful.. If you have any queries feel free to comment 🙂